Here are links to the chapters you need to read for week 3. They explore different aspects of instructional design and are available as digitised chapters from the University. You will only be able to access these if you have your Manchester username and password:

Cennamo, K. and Kalk, D. (2005) "Introduction to instructional design" from Cennamo, Katherine and Kalk, Debby, Real World Instructional Design pp.1-19, California: Belmont. http://eml.manchester.ac.uk/lib/EDUC70222/EDUC70222_3034.pdf

Sharp, H. (2007) "What is interaction design?" from Sharp, Helen, Interaction design pp.1-42, Hoboken, NJ,: Wiley. [42]
http://eml.manchester.ac.uk/lib/EDUC70222/EDUC70222_3037.pdf



This is an article by myself on course design which shows some of the thinking that has gone into designing course units for the course you are following:

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http://www.instructionaldesign.org/index.html An interesting website with a growing number of materials relevant to the module.

http://create.alt.ed.nyu.edu/courses/2174/reading/smith_ragan_1_2.pdf A number of book chapters put together into a pdf that give an overview of what Instructional Design is all about.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/674063n3153t38r8/fulltext.pdf An article by Herrington and Oliver who write interesting articles about the field.

An introduction to the ideas of Gagne and his 'Conditions of Learning' that have been influential in the area of instructional design.

Business & management

Instructional Design has a commercial parent known as Scientific Management. The most well known user of this was Henry Ford, with his massively integrated River Rouge car plant where the Model T was made. The theorists who pioneered the approach include F.W. Taylor and F.B. Gilbreth who are noted for the 'one best way' and 'time and motion studies' respectively.

Scientific Management is most commonly linked to dehumanising the production process, treating people as physically complex machines. As such, they were instructed what to do (Telling/Directing in Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Ledership model).

Ford boasted of farmer machines, technology so simple to use he could train an illiterate farmer to use it in 30 minutes. In fact, the Ford training programme lasted 30 minutes. For ten minutes you watched someone else do it, for ten minutes you did it with their close (literally hands on) guidance, then for ten minutes they watched you work independently.

The dehumanising and deskilling was parodied by Charlie Chaplin, a marxist, in the film Modern Times, echoes of which can be seen in Orwell's 1984.

There are clear differences between ID and Ford's production line. Whereas the goal of ID is to enhance the 'worker', the outcome for Ford was a vehicle, and the well being of the workers was a significant inconvenience. However, the principals of Taylorism and Scientific Design remain core to ID: it is about discovering the 'one best way' to complete a non-intuitive task, whatever that task may be.

Here is a defintion of 'Instructional Design' from the this website: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/index.html

'The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of learning materials. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.'Instructional Design Contributions from the field.

Hasan Al-rikabi

Actually, I found a very interesting article that talks about the role of context in learning and instructional design. The paper examines the role of context in learning and how context can be addressed in the process of instructional design. I think it is crucial to analyse the different variables in any learning context in order to be able to create a successful learning environment in which different needs and wants are met.

The link of the article:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/7lw260n449223814/fulltext.pdfYou will need to login to access this article.

Maria Anestopoulou

ID129.pdf

I'm very enthusiastic of the article above because it made me to understand clearly the procedure of instructional design and the necessity of knowing the literature in the specific domain. The paper refers to a study conducted for the communicative and learning needs of U.S. Navy and its title is Learning System Design Considerations in Creating a Web-mediated and learning Environment: A case study.

The conductors of this reasearch try to apply different evaluation models for assessing their product (Dick and Carey, Kaufman, Keller and Nielsen's models). Participants and designers collaborate for constructing a valuable product by identifying possible product improvements and by providing guidance in the ongoing design of the product.Website evaluation is conducted simultaneously throughout the design process. Some basic aims are to assess the aesthetic quality of their product and redesign it and also to assess the content,the learning activities and the defined objectives of it.Two leveled evaluation takes place: learner/performer evaluation and novice user evaluation.

I concluded that the literature exists not only for the sake of theory but also for the sake of practice!

I found this article about Instructional Design I thought I would share. It focuses on the different models for ID. It also includes references for further reading.
Instructional Design in Elearning by George Siemens (2002)


The Impact of Technology and Theory on Instructional Design since 2000 is one essay in a much larger text (Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology)(the whole text is available through Shibboleth login).

The article provides an overview of changes in Instructional Design (ID). It's a very dense text which covers a lot of studies and so I wouldn't recommend it as an entry to the topic. As a follow up text it does provide a lot of information and many references to other articles, as such it could be a good basis for anyone wanting to explore this field more fully.

It presents four 'ages' of ID which encompass the idea of designing materials to encourage learners to be inquisitive, nurturing individual learning, creating a fuller, more encompassing learning environment, and using modern technology to achieve this. There were echoes of the need to be wary of using technology to enhance design and not just to implement new technology for it's own sake evident in (Motteram, 2009) already listed higher up in the wiki.

http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=OWavJCNfhcsC&lpg=PP2&ots=26SuORaR4b&dq=instructional%20design&lr&pg=PP2#v=onepage&q=instructional%20design&f=false
This book titled 'Instructural Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructural Theory Volume II' edited by Charles. M. Reigeluth looks at a wide range of topic related to instructural design. It begins by looking at instructional design theory to help the reader understand what it is, in later chapters the book looks at areas of cognitive development including open learning environments. Although the entire book is not available to preview, the pages shown are useful to those wishing to understand the basics of instructional design.
http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=PizNG9-KvDQC&lpg=PP2&ots=mcwAkBcfud&dq='Ten%20Steps%20to%20Complex%20Learning'%20&lr&hl=ko&pg=PP2#v=onepage&q='Ten%20Steps%20to%20Complex%20Learning'&f=false
This book titled 'Ten Steps to Complex Learning' by By Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer, Paul A. Kirschner takes a closer look at the steps involved in instructional design.
A couple of interesting articles about evaluation of courseware and improving efficiency in instructional design…
http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JSS/JSS-20-0-000-09-Web/JSS-20-2-000-09-Abst-PDF/JSS-20-02-091-09-896-Nemati-A/JSS-20-02-091-09-896-Nemati-A-Tt.pdf
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00902.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false


ADDIE: a great series of 5 short videos, each introducing the phases of the ADDIE model. I've posted them together on a blog page for convenience:
http://www.digitefl.com/?p=694